Q. 1: Explain the Structure of Balance of Payments. OR
Write note on India’s Balance of Trade.
Ans. A) STRUCTURE OF BALANCE OF PAYMENTS:-
The Balance of Payment (BOP) of a country is a systematic account of all economic transactions between a country and the rest of the world, undertaken during a specific period of time. BOP is the difference between all receipts from foreign countries and all payments to foreign countries. If the receipts exceed payments, then a country is said to have favourable BOP, and vice versa.
According to Charles Kindle Berger "The BOP of a country is a systematic recording of all economic transactions between residents of that country and the rest of the world during a given period of time".
The Balance of payments record is maintained in a standard double - entry book - keeping method. International transactions enter into record as credit or debit. The payments received from foreign countries enter as credit and payments made to other countries as debit. The following table shows the elements of BOP.
BALANCE OF PAYMENTS ACCOUNT
1. Export of goods.
Imports of goods.
Trade Account Balance
2. Export of services.
3. Interest, profit and dividends
4. Unilateral receipts.
Import of services.
Interest, profit and dividends paid.
Current Account Balance (1 to 4)
5. Foreign investments.
6. Short term borrowings.
7. Medium and long term borrowing.
Short term lending.
Medium and long term lending.
Capital Account Balance (5 to 7)
8. Errors and omissions.
9. Change in reserves. (+)
Errors and omissions.
Change in reserve (-)
Total Reciepts = Total Payments
1. Trade Balance :-
Trade balance is the difference between export and import of goods, usually referred as visible or tangible items. If the exports are more than imports, there will be trade surplus and if imports are more than exports, there will be trade deficit. Developing countries have most of the time suffered a deficit in their balance of payments. The trade balance forms a part of current account. In 2008-09, trade deficit of India was 118.6 US $ billion.
2. Current Account Balance :-
It is the difference between the receipts and payments on account of current account which includes trade balance. The current account includes export of services, interest, profits, dividends and unilateral receipts from abroad and the import of services, profits, interest, dividends and unilateral payments abroad. There can be either surplus or deficit in current account. When debits are more than credits or when payments are more than receipts deficit takes place. Current account surplus will take place when credits are more and debits are less.
Current account balance is very significant. It shows a country's earning and payments in foreign exchange. A surplus balance strengthens the country's international financial position. It could be used for development of the country. A deficit is a problem for any country but it creates a serious situation for developing countries. In 2009-10 India’s current account deficit was 38.4 US $ billion.
3. Capital Account Balance :-
It is the difference between receipts and payments on account of capital account. The transactions under this title involves inflows and outflows relating to investments, short term borrowings I lending, and medium term to long term borrowings / lending. There can be surplus or deficit in capital account. When credits are more than debits surplus will take place and when debits are more than credits deficit will take place. In 2009-10. India’s capital account surplus was 51.8 US $ billion.
4. Errors and Omissions :-
The double entry book - keeping principle states that for every credit, there is a corresponding debit and therefore, there should be a balance in BOP as well. In reality BOP may not balance, due to errors and omissions. Errors may be due to statistical discrepancies (differences) and omissions may be due to certain transactions may not get recorded. For Eg., remittance by an Indian working abroad to India may not get recorded etc. If the current and capital account shows a surplus of 20,000 $, then the BOP should show an increase of 20,000 $. But, if the statement shows an increase of 22,000 $, then there is an error or omission of 2,000 $ on credit side.
5. Foreign Exchange Reserves :-
The balance of foreign exchange reserve is the combined effect of current and capital account balances. The reserves will increase when:-
a) The surplus capital account is much more than the deficit in current account.
b) The surplus in current account is much more than deficit in capital account.
c) Both the current account and capital account shows a surplus.
In 2009-10 India’s foreign exchange reserves increased by 13.4 US $ billion.
Q.2. Write note on India’s Balance of Trade
ANS. A. INDIA’S BALANCE OF TRADE:-
Balance of trade is the difference between exports and imports. India’s Balance of trade is mostly in deficit. This is due to low share off Exports in world market. Imports are high due to petroleum, oil and lubricant products.
India’s export performance is poor. At present, India’s share off world export trade is 1%. The share of exports of other developing countries is much more than India.
B. REASONS FOR POOR PERFORMANCE OF INDIA’S EXPORT TRADE
There are Several reasons for India’s Poor performance. Some off them are:
I. Export - Related Problems :-
1. High Prices :-
As compared to other Asian Countries the price of Indian goods is high. Prices are high due to documentation formalities, high transaction costs & also to make higher profits.
2. Poor - Quality :-
Many Indian exporters do not give much importance to quality control, so their products are of poor quality. Due to low quality many times Indian goods are rejected & sent back to India by foreign buyers.
3. Poor Negotiation Skills :-
Indian exporters lack Negotiation Skills due to poor training in Marketing. They fail to Convince & induce the foreign buyers to place orders.
4. Inadequate Promotion :-
For Export Marketing, Promotion is important. Many Indian Exporters do not give much importance to promotion. A good no. of Indian exporters are not professional in advertising & Sales promotion. They do not take part in trade fairs & exhibitions.
5. Poor follow-up of sales :-
Indian exporters are ineffective in providing after-sale-service. They do not bother to find out the reactions of buyers after sale. This results in poor performance of India’s export trade.
II. General Causes
1. Good Domestic Market
Sellers find a ready market for their goods within the country, so they do not take patns to get orders from overseas markets.
2. Number of formalities
There are number of documentation & other formalities due to which the some rnarketers do not enter the export field. So there is a need to simplify formalities.
3. Problem of Trading Blocs
Trading blocs reduce trade barriers on member nations, but they impose trade barriers on non-members. As India is not a member of some powerful trading blocs, it has to face some problems.
4. Negative Attitude
Some of the overseas buyers have a negative attitude towards Indian goods. They feel that Indian goods are inferior goods. Thus there is a need to correct this attitude.
5. Poor Infrastructure
Indian infrastructure is poor. Indian exporters find it difficult to get orders & also to deliver them at time.
Q. 3 : What are the Types of BOP Disequilibrium? OR
Write note on Types of Disequilibrium in Balance of Payments.
Ans. A. EQUILIBRIUM AND DISEQUILIBRIUM IN BOP :-
Balance of payments is the difference between the receipts from and payments to foreigners by residents of a country. In accounting sense balance of payments, must always balance. Debits must be equal to credits. So, there will be equilibrium in balance of payments.
Symbolically, B = R - P
Where : - B = Balance of Payments
R = Receipts from Foreigners
P = Payments made to Foreigners
When B = Zero, there is said to be equilibrium in balance of payments.
When B is positive there is favourable balance of payments; When &. B is negative there is unfavourable or adverse balance of payments.' When there is a surplus or a deficit in balance of payments there is said : to be disequilibrium in balance of payments. Thus disequilibrium refers to imbalance in balance of payments.
B. TYPES OF DISEQUILIBRIUM IN BOP
The following are the main types of disequilibrium in the balance of payments:-
1. Structural Diseguilibrium :-
Structural disequilibrium is caused by structural changes in the economy affecting demand and supply relations in commodity and factor markets. Some of the structural disequilibrium are as follows :-
a. A shift in demand due to changes in tastes, fashions, income etc. would
decrease or increase the demand for imported goods thereby causing a
disequilibrium in BOP.
b. If foreign demand for a country's products declines due to new and cheaper substitutes
abroad, then the country's exports will decline causing a deficit.
c. Changes in the rate of international capital movements may also cause structural
d. If supply is affected due to crop failure, shortage of raw-materials, strikes, political instability etc., then there would be deficit in BOP.
e. A war or natural calamities also result in structural changes which may affect not only goods
but also factors of production causing disequilibrium in BOP.
f. Institutional changes that take place within and outside the country may result in BOP
disequilibrium. For Eg. if a trading block imposes additional import duties on products imported in member countries of the block, then the exports of exporting country would be restricted or reduced. This may worsen the BOP position of exporting country.
2. Cyclical Disequilibrium :-
Economic activities are subject to business cycles, which normally have four phases Boom or Prosperity, Recession, Depression and Recovery. During boom period, imports may increase considerably due to increase in demand for imported goods. During recession and depression, imports may be reduced due to fall in demand on account of reduced income. During recession exports may increase due to fall in prices. During boom period, a country may face deficit in BOP on account of increased imports.
Cyclical disequilibrium in BOP may occur because
a. Trade cycles follow different paths and patterns in different countries.
b. Income elasticities of demand for imports in different countries are not identical.
c. Price elasticities of demand for imports differ in different countries.
3. Short - Run Disequilibrium :-
This disequilibrium occurs for a short period of one or two years. Such BOP disequilibrium is temporary in nature. Short - run disequilibrium arises due to unexpected contingencies like failure of rains or favourable monsoons, strikes, industrial peace or unrest etc. Imports may increase exports or exports may increase imports in a year due to these reasons and causes a temporary disequilibrium exists.
International borrowing or lending for a short - period would cause short - run disequilibrium in balance of payments of a country. Short term disequilibrium can be corrected through short - term borrowings. If short - run disequilibrium occurs repeatedly it may pave way for long - run disequilibrium.
4. Long - Run I Secular Disequilibrium :-
Long run or fundamental disequilibrium refers to a persistent deficit or a surplus in the balance of payments of a country. It is also known as secular disequilibrium. The causes of long - term disequilibrium are
a. Continuous increase in demand for imports due to increasing population.
b. Constant price changes - mostly inflation which affects exports on continuous basis.
c. Decline in demand for exports due to technological improvements in importing countries, and as
such the importing countries depend less on imports.
The long run disequilibrium can be corrected by making constant efforts to increase exports and to reduce imports.
5. Monetary Diseguilibrium
Monetary disequilibrium takes place on account of inflation or deflation. Due to inflation, prices of products in domestic market rises, which makes exports expensive. Such a situation may affect BOP equilibrium. Inflation also results in increase in money income with people, which in turn may increase demand for imported goods. As a result imports may turn BOP position in disequilibrium.
6. Exchange Rate Fluctuations :-
A high degree of fluctuation in exchange rate may affect the BOP position. For Eg. if Indian Rupee gets appreciated against dollar, then Indian exporters will receive lower amounts of foreign exchange, whereas, there will be more outflow of foreign exchange on account of higher imports. Such a situation will adversely affect BOP position. But, if domestic currency depreciates against foreign currency, then the BOP position may have positive impact.
Q. 4 : What are the main causes of BOP Disequilibrium? OR
Discuss the causes of disequilibrium in Balance of Payments? (M.11)
Ans. A. CAUSES OF DISEQUILIBRIUM IN BOP
Any disequilibrium in the balance of payment is the result of imbalance between receipts and payments for imports and exports. Normally, the term disequilibrium is interpreted from a negative angle and therefore, it implies deficit in BOP.
The disequilibrium in BOP is caused due to various factors. Some of them are
- Import - Related Causes
The rise in imports has been the most important factor responsible for large BOP deficits. The causes of rapid expansion of imports are :-
1. Population Growth
Population Growth may increase the demand for imported goods such as food items and non food items, to meet their growing needs. Thus, increase in imports may lead to BOP disequilibrium.
2. Development Programme
Increase in development programmes by developing countries may require import of capital goods, raw materials and technology. As development is a continuous process, imports of these items continue for a long time landing the developing countries in BOP deficit.
3. Imports Of Essential Items
Countries which do not have enough supply of essential items like Crude oil or Capital equipments are required to import them. Again due to natural calamities government may resort to heavy imports, which adversely affect the BOP position.
4. Reduction Of Import Duties
When import duties are reduced, imports becomes cheaper as such imports increases. This increases the deficit in BOP position.
Inflation in domestic markets may increase the demand for imported goods, provided the imported goods are available at lower prices than in domestic markets.
6. Demonstration Effect
An increase in income coupled with awareness of higher living standard of foreigners, induce people at home to imitate the foreigners. Thus, when people become victims of demonstration effect, their propensity to import increases.
- Export Related Causes :-
Even though export earnings have increased but they have not been sufficient enough to meet the rising imports. Exports may reduce without a corresponding decline in imports. Following are the causes for decrease in exports
1. Increase In Population :-
Goods which were earlier exported may be consumed by rising population. This reduces the export earnings of the country leading to BOP disequilibrium.
2. Inflation :-
When there is inflation in domestic market, prices of export goods increases. This reduces the demand of export goods which in turn results in trade deficit.
3. Appreciation Of Currency :-
Appreciation of domestic currency against foreign currencies results in lower foreign exchange to exporters. This demotivates the exporters.
4. Discovery Of Substitutes :-
With technological development new substitutes have come up. Like plastic for rubber, synthetic fibre for cotton etc. This may reduce the demand for raw material requirement.
5. Technological Development :-
Technological Development in importing countries may reduce their imports. This can be possible when they start manufacturing goods which they were exporting earlier. This will have an adverse effect on exporting countries.
6. Protectionist Trade Policy :-
Protectionist trade policy of importing country would encourage domestic producers by giving them incentives, whereas, the imports would be discouraged by imposing high duties. This will affect exports.
- Other Causes :-
1. Flight of Capital
Due to speculative reasons, countries may lose foreign exchange or gold stocks. Investors may also withdraw their investments, which in turn puts pressure on foreign exchange reserves.
Globalisation and the rules of WTO have brought a liberal and open environment in global trade. It has positive as well as negative effects on imports, exports and investments. Poor countries are unable to cope up with this new environment. Ultimately they become loser and their BOP is adversely affected.
3. Cyclical Transmission
International trade is also affected by Business cycles. Recession or depression in one or more developed countries may affect the rest of the world. The negative effects of trade cycle (low income, low demand, etc.) are transmitted from one country to another. For eg. The current financial crisis in U.S.A. is affecting the rest of the world.
4. Structural Adjustments
Many countries in recent years are undergoing structural changes. Their economies are being liberalised. As a result, investment, income and other variables are changing resulting in changes in exports and imports.
5. Political factors
The existence of political instability may result in disrupting the productive apparatus of the country causing a decline in exports and increase in imports. Likewise, payment of war expenses may also serious affect disequilibrium in the country’s BOP. Thus political factors may also produce serious disequilibrium in the country’s BOPs.
Q. 5 : Explain the different measures to correct disequilibrium in BOP. OR
Examine the measures taken by government to overcome the BOP crisis. OR
What are the measures to be undertaken to correct BOP disequilibrium.
Ans. A. MEASURES TO CORRECT DISEQUILIBRIUM IN BOP :-
Any disequilibrium (deficit or surplus) in balance of payments is bad for normal internal economic operations and international economic relations. A deficit is more harmful for a country’s economic growth, thus it must be corrected sooner than later. The measures to correct disequilibrium can be broadly divided into four groups
Monetary Fiscal Exchange Rate Non-monetary
Policy Policy Policy Policy
I. Monetary Measures :-
1) Monetary Policy :-
The monetary policy is concerned with money supply and credit in the economy. The Central Bank may expand or contract the money supply in the economy through appropriate measures which will affect the prices.
A. Inflation :-
If in the country there is inflation, the Central Bank through its monetary policy will make an attempt to reduce inflation. The Central Bank will adopt tight monetary policy. Money supply will be controlled by increase in Bank Rate, Cash Reserve Ratio, Statutory Ratio etc.
The monetary policy measures may reduce money supply, and encourage people to save more, which would reduce inflation. If inflation is reduced, the prices of domestic market will decrease and also that of export goods. In foreign markets there will be more demand for export goods, which would correct BOP disequilibrium.
B. Deflation :-
During deflation the Central Bank of the country may adopt easy monetary policy. It will try to increase money supply and credit in the economy, which would increase investment. More investment leads to more production. Surplus can be exported, which in turn may improve BOP position.
2) Fiscal Policy
Fiscal policy is government's policy on income and expenditure. Government incurs development and non - development expenditure,. It gets income through taxation and non - tax sources. Depending upon the situation governments expenditure may be increased or decreased.
During inflation the government may adopt easy fiscal policy. The tax rates for corporate sector may be reduced, which would encourage more production and distribution including exports. Increased exports will bring more foreign exchange there by making the BOP position favourable.
During deflation the government would adopt restrictive fiscal policy.It may impose additional taxes on consumers or may introduce tax saving schemes. This may reduce the consumption of citizens, which in turn may enable more export surplus.
To restrict imports the government may also impose additional tariffs or customs duties which may improve the BOP position.
3) Exchange Rate Policy
Foreign exchange rate in the market may directly or indirectly be influenced by the Government.
When foreign exchange problem is faced by the country, the government tries to reduce imports and .increase exports. This is done through devaluation of domestic currency. Under devaluation, the- government makes a deliberate effort to reduce the value of home country. If devaluation is carried out, then the exports will become cheaper and imports costlier. This is turn will help to reduce imports and increase exports.
Depreciation like devaluation lowers the value of domestic currency or increases the value of foreign currency. Depreciation of a country's currency takes place in free or competitive foreign exchange market due to market forces. Depreciation and devaluation have the same effect on exchange rate. If there is high demand for foreign currency than its supply, it will appreciate and vice versa. However, in several countries the system of managed flexibility is followed. If there is more demand for foreign exchange, the central bank will release the foreign currency in the market from its reserves so as to reduce the appreciation of foreign currency. If there is less demand for foreign exchange, it will purchase the foreign currency from market so as to reduce the depreciation of foreign country and appreciation of domestic currency.
Due to devaluation and depreciation of domestic currency, the exports become cheaper and imports become expensive. This helps to increase exports.
I) Non-Monetary / General Measures :
A deficit country along with monetary measures may adopt the following non-monetary measures too, which will either restrict imports or promote exports.
1) Tariffs :-
Tariffs refer to duties on imports to restrict imports. Tariff is a fiscal device which may be used to correct an adverse balance of payments. The imposition of import duties will raise the prices of imports. This will lead to a reduction in demand for imports thereby improving the balance of payments position.
2) Quotas :-
Under Quota System, the government may fix and permit the maximum quantity or value of a commodity to be imported during a given period. By restricting imports through quota system, the deficit is reduced and the balance of payments position is improved.
3) Export Promotion :-
The government may introduce a number of export promotion measures to encourage exporters to export more so as to earn valuable foreign exchange, which in turn would improve BOP Situation. Some of the incentives are Subsidies, Tax Concessions, Grants, Octroi refund, Excise exemption, Duty Drawback, Marketing facilities etc.
4) Import Substitution
Governments, especially, that of the developing countries may encourage import substitution so as to restrict imports and save valuable foreign exchange. The government may encourage domestic producers to produce goods which were earlier imported. The domestic producers may be given several incentives such as Tax holiday, Cash Subsidy, Assistance in Research & Development, Providing technical assistance, Providing Scarce inputs etc.
A. CONCLUSION :-
From the above measures it is clear that more exports with import substitution based on economic strength of the country are the real effective solutions to correct the disequilibrium in the balance of payments.