Q.1: Define Monetary Policy. Discuss the objectives of RBI’s Monetary policy. OR

              Write note on objectives of RBI’s Monetary Policy.
Monetary policy is a regulatory policy by which the central bank or monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, availability of bank credit and cost of money, that is, the rate of Interest.

Monetary policy / monetary management is regarded as an important tool of economic management in India. RBI controls the supply of money and bank credit. The Central bank has the duty to see that legitimate credit requirements are met and at the same credit is not used for unproductive and speculative purposes. RBI rightly calls its credit policy as one of controlled expansion.

The main objective of monetary policy in India is ‘growth with stability’. Monetary Management regulates availability, cost and use of money and credit. It also brings institutional changes in the financial sector of the economy. Following are the main objectives of monetary policy in India :-
1.    Growth With Stability :-
Traditionally, RBI’s monetary policy was focused on controlling inflation through contraction of money supply and credit. This resulted in poor growth performance. Thus, RBI have now adopted the policy of ‘Growth with Stability’. This means sufficient credit will be available for growing needs of different sectors of economy and at the same time, inflation will be controlled with in a certain limit.

2.    Regulation, Supervision And Development Of Financial Stability :-
Financial stability means the ability of the economy to absorb shocks and maintain confidence in financial system. Threats to financial stability can come from internal and external shocks. Such shocks can destabilize the country’s financial system. Thus, greater importance is being given to RBI’s role in maintaining confidence in financial system through proper regulation and controls, without sacrificing the objective of growth. Therefore, RBI is focusing on regulation, supervision and development of financial system.

3.    Promoting Priority Sector :-
Priority sector includes agriculture, export and small scale enterprises and weaker section of population. RBI with the help of bank provides timely and adequately credit at affordable cost of weaker sections and low income groups. RBI, along with NABARD, is focusing on microfinance through the promotion of Self Help groups and other institutions.

4.    Generation Of Employment :-
Monetary policy helps in employment generation by influencing the rate of investment and allocation of investment among various economic activities of different labour Intensities.

5.    External Stability :-
With the growth of imports and exports India’s linkages with global economy are getting stronger. Earlier, RBI controlled foreign exchange market by determining eaxchange rate. Now, RBI has only indirect control over external stability through the mechanism of ‘managed Flexibility’, where it influences exchange rate by buying and selling foreign currencies in open market.

6.    Encouraging Savings And Investments :-
RBI by offering attractive interest rates encourage savings in the economy. A high rate of saving promotes investment. Thus the monetary management by influencing rates of interest can influence saving mobilization in the country.

7.    Redistribution Of income And Wealth :-
By control of inflation and deployment of credit to weaker sectors of society the monetary policy may redistribute income and wealth favouring to weaker sections.

8.    Regulation Of NBFIs:-
Non – Banking Financial Institutions (NBFIs), like UTI, IDBI, IFCI plays an important role in deployment of credit and mobilization of savings. RBI does not have any direct control on the functioning of such institutions. However it can indirectly affects the policies and functions of NBFIs through its monetary policy.

Q.2:Discuss / Explain the various functions of RBI.
The Reserve Bank of India is the central bank of India it was established as a shareholder’s bank on 1st April 1935. Its share capital was Rs. 5 crore, divided in to 5 lakhs fully paid up shares of Rs. 100 each. On 1st January 1949 it was nationalized. Its headquarters is at Mumbai. RBI, like any other bank performs almost all traditional Central banking functions. Due to country’s development it has also undertaken developmental and promotional functions.
RBI performs many functions, some of them are:-
1.    Issue Of Currency Notes :-
Under section 22 of RBI Act, the bank has the sole right to issue currency notes of all denominations except one rupee coins and notes. The one-rupee notes and coins and small coins are issued by Central Government and their distribution is undertaken by RBI as the agent of the government. The RBI has a separate issue department which is entrusted with the issue of currency notes.

2.    Banker To The Government :-
The RBI acts as a banker agent and adviser to the government. It has obligation to transact the banking business of Central Government as well as State Governments. E.g.:- RBI receives and makes all payments on behalf of government, remits its funds, buys and sells foreign currencies for it and gives it advice on all banking matters. RBI helps the Government – both Central and state – to float new loans and manage public debt. The bank makes ways and meets advances of the government. On behalf of central government it sells treasury bills and thereby provides short-term finance.

3.    Banker’s bank And Lender Off Last Resort :-
RBI acts as a banker to other banks. It provides financial assistance to scheduled banks and state co-operative banks in form of rediscounting of eligible bills and loans and advances against approved securities.
RBI acts as a lender of last resort. It provides funds to bank when they fail to get it from other sources. It also acts as a clearing house. Through RBI, banks make interbanks payments.

4.    Controller Of Credit :-
RBI has power to control the volume of credit created by banks. The RBI through its various quantitative and qualitative techniques regulates total supply of money and bank credit in the interest of economy. RBI pumps in money during busy season and withdraws money during slack season.

5.    Exchange control And Custodian Of Foreign Reserve :-
RBI has the responsibility of maintaining fixed exchange rates with all member countries of IMF. For this, RBI has centralized all foreign exchange reserves (FOREX). RBI functions as custodian of nations foreign exchange reserves. It has to maintain external valu of Rupee. RBI achieves this aim through appropriate monetary fiscal and trade policies and exchange control.

6.    Collection And Publication Of Data :-
The RBI collects and complies statistical information on banking and financial operations of the economy. The Reserve Bank Of India’ Bulletian is a monthly publication. It not only provides information, but also results of important studies and investigations conducted by reserve bank are given. ‘The Report on currency and finance’  is an annual publication. It provides review of various developments of economic and financial importance.

7.    Regulatory And Supervisory Functions :-
The RBI has wide powers of supervision and control over commercial and co-operative banks, relating to licensing, establishment, branch expansion, liquidity of Assets, management and methods of working, amalgamation, re-construction and liquidation. The supervisory functions of RBI have helped a great in improving the standard of banking in India to develop on sound lines and to improve the methods of their operation.

8.    Clearing House Functions :-
The RBI acts as a clearing house for all member banks. This avoids unnecessary transfer of funds between the various banks.

9.    Development And Promotional Functions :-
The RBI has helped in setting up Industrial Finance Corporations of India (IFCI), State Financial Corporations (SFCs), Deposit Insurance Corporation, Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation (ARDC), units Trust of India (UTI) etc. these institutions were set up to mobilize savings, promote saving habits and to provide industrial and agricultural finance.
RBI has a special Agricultural Credit Department (ACD) which studies the problems of agricultural credit. For this Regional Rural banks, Co-operative, NABARD etc. were established. The RBI has also taken measures to promote organized bill market to create elasticity in Indian Money Market in order to satisfy seasonal credit needs.
Thus RBI has contributed to economic growth by promoting rural credit, industrial financing, export trade etc.

Q.3): Explain the quantitative and selective methods ofcredit controlused by RBI.OR
            Explain the Monetary Policy of RBI Imeasures takenby RBI to control credit.          OR
Write note on Quantitative I Selective methods ofcredit control.                                   OR
Explain Monetary Management of RBI.
The Monetary Policy of RBI is not merely one of credit restriction, but it has also the duty to see that legitimate credit requirements are met and at the same time credit is not used for unproductive and speculative purposes RBI has various weapons of monetary control and by using them, it hopes to achieve its monetary policy.
I)              General I Quantitative Credit Control Methods :-
In India, the legal framework of RBI’s control over the credit structure has been provided
Under Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and the Banking RegulationAct, 1949. Quantitative credit controls are used to maintain proper quantity of credit o money supply in market. Some of the important general credit control methods are:-
1.    Bank Rate Policy :-
Bank rate is the rate at which the Central bank lends money to the commercial banks for their liquidity requirements. Bank rate is also called discount rate. In other words bank rate is the rate at which the central bank rediscounts eligible papers (like approved securities, bills of exchange, commercial papers etc) held by commercial banks.
Bank rate is important because its is the pace setter to other marketrates of
interest. Bank rates have been changed several times by RBI to control inflation
and recession. By 2003, the bank rate has been reduced to 6% p.a.

2.    Open market operations :-
 It refers to buying and selling of government securities in open market in order to expand or contract the amount of money in the banking system.This technique is superior to bank rate policy. Purchases inject money into the banking system while sale of securities do the opposite. During last two decades the RBI has been undertaking switch operations. These involve the purchase of one loan against the sale of another or, vice-versa. This policy aims at preventing unrestricted increase in liquidity.
3.    Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR)
The Gash Reserve Ratio (CRR) is an effective instrument of credit control. Under the RBl Act of, l934 every commercial bank has to keep certain minimum cash reserves with RBI. The RBI is empowered to vary the CRR between 3% and 15%. A high CRR reduces the cash for lending and a low CRR increases the cash for lending. The CRR has been brought down from 15% in 1991 to 7.5% in May 2001. It further reduced to 5.5% in December 2001. It stood at 5% on January 2009. In January 2010, RBI increased the CRR from 5% to 5.75%. It further increased in April 2010 to 6% as inflationary pressures had started building up in the economy. As of March 2011, CRR is 6%.
4.    Statutory Liquidity Ratio (SLR)
Under SLR, the government has imposed an obligation on the banks to ,maintain a certain ratio to its total deposits with RBI in the form of liquid assets like cash, gold and other securities. The RBI has power to  fix SLR in the range of 25% and 40% between 1990 and 1992 SLR was as high as 38.5%. Narasimham Committee did not favour maintenance of high SLR. The SLR was lowered down to 25% from 10thOctober 1997.It was further reduced to 24% on November 2008. At present it is 25%.

5.    Repo And Reverse Repo Rates
In determining interest rate trends, the repo and reverse repo rates are becoming important. Repo means Sale and Repurchase Agreement. Repo is a swap deal involving the immediate Sale of Securities and simultaneous purchase of those securities at a future date, at a predetermined price. Repo rate helps commercial banks to acquire funds from RBI by selling securities and also agreeing to repurchase at a later date.

Reverse repo rate is the rate that banks get from RBI for parking their short term excess funds with RBI. Repo and reverse repo operations are used by RBI in its Liquidity Adjustment Facility. RBI contracts credit by increasing the repo and reverse repo rates and by decreasing them it expands credit. Repo rate was 6.75% in March 2011 and Reverse repo rate was 5.75% for the same period. On May 2011 RBI announced Monetary Policy for 2011-12. To reduce inflation it hiked repo rate to,7.25% and Reverse repo to 6.25%
Under Selective Credit Control, credit is provided to selected borrowersfor selected purpose, depending upon the use to which the control try to regulate the quality of credit - the direction towards thecredit flows. The Selective Controls are :-
1.    Ceiling On Credit
The Ceilingon level of credit restricts the lending capacity of a bank to grant advances against certain controlled securities.
2.       MarginRequirements :-
A loan is sanctioned against Collateral Security. Margin means that proportion of the value of security against which loan is not given. Margin against a particular security is reduced or increased in order to encourageor to discourage the flow of credit to a particular sector. It varies from 20% to 80%. For agricultural commodities it is as high as 75%. Higher the margin lesser will be the loan sanctioned.
3.       Discriminatory Interest Rate (DIR)
Through DIR, RBI makes credit flow to certain priority or weaker sectors by charging concessional rates of interest. RBI issues supplementary instructions regarding granting of additional credit against sensitive commodities, issue of guarantees, making advances etc. .

4.       Directives:-
The RBI issues directives to banks regarding advances. Directives are regarding the purpose for which loans may or may not be given.
5.       Direct Action
It is too severe and is therefore rarely followed. It may involve refusal by RBI to rediscount bills or cancellation of license, if the bank has failed to comply with the directives of RBI.
6.       Moral Suasion
Under Moral Suasion, RBI issues periodical letters to bank to exercise control over credit in general or advances against particular commodities. Periodic discussions are held with authorities of commercial banks in this respect.
Q. 4 :Examine the recent changes that have taken place in RBIs Monetary Policy. (Mar. ‘11)
Since 1991 RBI’s monetary management has undergone some major changes.
Let us explain
1)             Multiple Indicator Approach :-
Upto late 1990s, RBI used the ‘Monetary targeting approach’ to its monetary policy. Monetary targeting refers to a monetary policy strategy aimed at maintaining price stability by focusing on changes in growth of money supply. After 1991 reforms this approach became difficult to follow. So RBI adopted Multiple indicator Approach in which it looks at a variety of economic indicators and monitor their impact on inflation and economic growth.
2)             Selective Methods Being Phased Out :-
With rapid progress in financial markets, the selective methods of credit control are being slowly phased out. Quantitative methods are becoming more important.
3)             Reduction In Reserve Requirements :-
In post-reform period the CRR and SLR have been progressively lowered. This has been done as a part of financial sector reforms. As a result, more bank funds have been released for lending. This has led to the growth of economy.
4)             Deregulation Of Administered Interest Rate System :-
Earlier lending rate of banks was determined by RBI. Since 1990s this system has changed and lending rates are determined by commercial banks on the basis of market forces.
5)             Delinking Of Monetary Policy From Budget Deficit :-
In1994 government phased out the use of adhoc treasury Bills.These bills were used by government to borrow from RBI to finance fiscal deficit. With phasing out of Bills, RBI would no longer lend to government to meet fiscal deficit.
6)             Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAF):-
LAF allows banks to borrow money through repurchase agreement LAF was introduced by RBI during June, 2000, in phases. The funds under LAF are used by banks to meet day-to-day mismatches in liquidity.
7)             Provision Of Micro Finance
By linking the banking system with Self Help Groups, RBI has introduced the scheme of micro finance for rural poor. Along with NABARD, RBI is promoting various other microfinance institutions.
8)             External Sector
With globalisation large amount of foreign capital is attracted. To provide stability in financial markets, RBI uses sterlization and LAF to absorb the excess liquidity that comes in with huge inflow of foreign capital.

9)             Expectation As A Channel Of Monetary Transmission
Traditionally, there were four key channels of monetary policy transmission :-Interest rate, credit availability, asset prices and exchange rate channels. Interest rate is the most dominant transmission channel as any change in monetary policy has immediate effect on it. In recent years fifth channel, Expectation has been added. Future expectations about asset prices, general price and Income levels influence the four traditional channels.

Q.5:Discuss RBI’s short term Liquidity Management.                                                                                    OR
Why has short term Liquidity Management gained importance in post reform India?
Discuss measures taken by RBI for Management of short term Liquidity. (Mar. ‘11)
Liquidity Management of Central bank means supplying to the market the amount of liquidity that is consistent with a desired level of short-term interest rate. It is defined “as the framework, set of instruments and the rules that the central bank follows in order to manage the amount of money supply to control short term interest rates with the objective of price stability”.
In RBI’s overall management short term liquidity management occupies a very important place due to following factors:-
1) In financial sector, in 1990’s, many reforms were introduced. The important reforms are deregulation of interest rates and exchange rates. Earlier these rates were determined by RBI, after reforms, they are determined by demand and supply. RBI in absence of direct intervention indirectly influences these rates by using multiple indicators approach.
2) Due to liberalization capital flows between countries have increased. From US $118 Million during 1991-92, capital flows to. India rose to US $15 billions in 2004-05.
3) Foreign capital flows have increased employment. It adds to the supply of foreign exchange and have resulted into appreciation of domestic currency.With this, theexports have become more expensive.
4) When capital inflows are converted into rupees, they get injected into the economy thereby, increasing the money supply.
So to maintain price stability RBI has to mange the exchange rate and Interest rate.

1.    Repo I Reverse Repo
To improve short term liquidity management, RBl. introduced repos in December 1992. Repo is Sale and Repurchase Agreement. It is a swap deal involving the immediate Sale of Securities and simultaneously purchase of those securities at a future date, at a predetermined price. Such deals takes place between RBI and banks. Due to lack of demand repos auctions were discontinued in March 1995, they were resumed again in 1997. Reverse repo rate is the rate that banks get from RBI for parking their short term excess funds with RBI.

2.    Interim Liquidity Adjustment Facility (ILAR)
To develop short term money market Narasimham Committee 1998 recommended LAF. Accordingly in 1999 RBI introduced ILAF. It (ILAF) provided a mechanism for liquidity management through a combination of repos, export credit refinance and collateralised lending facilities supported by Open Market Operations.

3.    Liquidity Adjustment Facility (LAP) V
RBI introduced-full-fledged LAF. It has been revised further. Under LAF, Reverse repo auctions and Repo auctions are conducted on daily basis. In India, the emergence of LAF was a single biggest factor which helped RBI to manage short term liquidity and maintain interest rate stability. In 2009-10, liquidity absorption through reverse repo reached its peak on 4th September 2009 at Rs. 1,68,215crore.

4.    Sterlization :-
Sterlization means re-cycling of foreign capital inflows to prevent appreciation of domestic currency and to check the inflationary impact of such capital. Sterlization is carried out through open market operations. But Sterlization can also leads to some problems. Thus RBI also,uses a variety of other measures to manage interest rates.

5.    Market Stabilization Scheme (MSS):-
Till 2003-04 the impact of large capital inflows was managed through day-to-day LAF and OMO. In the process, the government securities available with RBI declined, as they were being used for absorbing excess liquidity. In order to handle these issues, RBI signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with Government for issuance of Treasury Bills and dated government securities under Market Stabilization Scheme (MSS). These Bills and Securities are used to absorb excess liquidity from market and: maintain stability in foreign exchange market.
Q. 6 :Evaluate RBI’s Monetary Policy.OR.
Give an appraisal (Achievements and Failures) of monetary policy of RBI.
The RBI aims at one time was controlled expansion. On one hand it was taking steps to expand bank credit. On other hand RBI uses quantitative and qualitative methods to control credit. These two contradictory objectives limited the success of monetary policy. The performance of monetary policy can be seen from its achievements and failures, let us discuss.
      I.        Achievements I Positive Aspects Of Monetary Policy :-
1.       Short Term Liquidity Management :-
RBI has developed various methods to maintain stability in interest rate and exchange rate like LAF, OMO and MSS. RBI has also managed its sterlization operations very well.
2.       Financial Stability :-
With the help of controls, regulation and supervision mechanism, RBI has been successful in maintaining financial stability. During the period of global crisis it has also been able to maintain macro economic stability.
3.       Financial Inclusion :-
Along with NABARD, RBI has made a great impact in the growth of microfinance. RBI has supported Self Help Group Model and promoted other microfinance institutions.
4.       Adaptability:-
In India monetary policy is flexible, as it changes with time. RBI has developed new methods of credit control and shifted from monetary targeting to multiple indicator approach.
5.       Increase In Growth:-
To maintain the growth of economy RBI has used its instruments' effectively. At present India has the second highest rate of GDP growth after China. Thus monetary policy has played an important role.
6.       Increase In Bank Deposits:-
The increase in bank deposits over the years indicates trust and confidence of people in banking sector. Effective supervision of RBI over banks and financial institutions is largely responsible for trust and confidence of public in banking sector.

7.       Competition Among Banks :-
The monetary policy of RBI has resulted in healthy competition among banks in the country. The competition is due to deregulation of interest rates and other measures taken by RBI. Now-a-days due to professionalism banks provide better service to customers.

1.       Huge Budgetary Deficits :-
RBI makes every possible attempt to control inflation and to balance money supply in the market. However Central Government's huge budgetary deficits have made monetary policy ineffective. Huge budgetary deficits have resulted in excessive monetary growth.
2.       Coverage Of Only Commercial Banks :-
Instruments of monetary policy cover only commercial banks so inflationary pressures caused by banking finance can be controlled by RBI, but in India, inflation also results from deficit financing and scarcity of goods on which RBI may not have any control.
3.       Problem Of Management Of Banks And Financial Institutions :-
The monetary policy can succeed to control inflation and to bring overall development only when the management of banks and Financial institutions are efficient and dedicated. Many officials of banks and financial institutions are corrupt and inefficient which leads to financial scams in this way overall economy is affected.
4.       Unorganised Money Market :-
Presence of unorganised sector of money market is one of the main obstacle in effective working of the monetary policy. As RBI has no power over the unorganised sector of money market, its monetary policy becomes less effective.
5.       Less Accountability:-
At present time, the goals of monetary policy in India, are not set out in specific terms and there is insufficient freedom in the use of instruments. In such a setting, accountability tends to be weak as there is lack of clarity in the responsibility of governments and RBI.
6.       Black Money :-
There is a growing presence of black money in the economy. Black money falls beyond the purview of banking control of RBI. It means large proposition of total money Supply in a country remains outside the purview of RBI's monetary management.
7.       Increase Volatility :-
The integration of domestic and foreign exchange markets could lead to increased volatility in the domestic market as the impact of exogenous factors could be transmitted to domestic market. The widening of foreign exchange market and development of rupee - foreign exchange swap would reduce risks and volatility.
8.       Lack Of Transparency :-
According to S. S. Tarapore, the monetary policy formulation, in its present form in India, cannot be continued indefinitely. For a more effective policy, it would be necessary to have greater transparency in the policy formulation and transmission process and the RBI would need to be clearly demarcated.
Thus, from above we can say that despite several problems RBI has made a good effort for effective implementation of the monetary policy in India.